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DRUG INFORMATION THAT COULD SAVE YOUR LIFE

Drug INFORMATION home |  Cannabis  | The Basics | Effects | Dangers
Addiction & Tolerance | Mixing With Other Drugs | FAQ/ Frequently Asked Questions | Drug Tests | Legality | Helpful Links |

Please note: there have been very few scientific studies into the effects of combining psychoactive drugs. The information presented here is anecdotal. It is based on the subjective reports of experienced users. Different people will respond differently to different drugs and drug combination. Know your body, use your head.

Cannabis
The most used, recreational drug in the world.

After you've signed your loved one up into a rehab program, reading teenage drug abuse articles might help you cope with and know more about your teenaged loved one's condition.


Basics: What it is;
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit mind-altering drug in the world. It is classed as 'a minor hallucinogen with depressant qualities'. When smoked or eaten, it has mild mind-expanding, pain killing, and intoxicating effects.

The cannabis plant has been used for thousands of years as a herbal medication and intoxicant.

Two Main Species: Cannabis Indica, is the strongest, and is used to make hash and stronger grasses, like skunk. Indica grows from 3 to 6 feet high with fat dark green leaves, purple-ish buds and a distinct stinky skunky smell.

Cannabis Sativa, also known as hemp, is traditionally used to make rope and fibres but can be smoked for a more cerebral high, over Indica's sleepy groggy effects. The plants are very tall with thin light green leaves, reddish buds, and a sweet fruity smell.
The main active ingredient is delta-9-THC or just THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) for short.

Appearance
Cannabis comes in two main forms: marijuana (also known as grass), the dried leaves and female flower heads; and hashish, compressed blocks of resin extracted from the plant.
Grass normally contains between 1 and 5% THC by weight. (1) Hashish is usually stronger (up to 26%) but is easier to adulterate, usually with paper pulp or caryophyllene, a consituent of cloves. (2) Most hash in the UK is of the weak, adulterated 'soapbar' variety.     Amsterdam on the other hand has the best selection of Hash in the world

Effects:
Cannabis induces a state of intoxicated relaxation, euphoria and dreaminess.
It is quick acting. Smoked, the first effects are usually felt within seconds. The peak follows within minutes and then declines sharply after about forty five minutes, with a ninety minute tail-off.(1)
You feel a general sense of well being and relaxation, giddiness and euphoria. You may also experience introspective dreaminess, increased appreciation of music, sleepiness and time distortion. The effects can be subtle. First time users often detect little or no effect.
Physically, bloodshot eyes and a dry mouth are common symptoms, as well as a slight increase in heartbeat and impaired short term memory.
Cannabis increases heart rate but decreases blood pressure, like a car changing down a gear (2) Regular users gain tolerance to this effect.
Cannabis is also famous for stimulating the appetite (especially, it would seem, for Wheat Crunchies and chocolate flavoured milk). These short bursts of extreme hunger are known universally as the 'munchies'.




In the Brain:
Cannabis has two powerful active ingredient -THC and CBD (cannabidiol). Both substances are classed as cannabinoids - they produce psychoactive effects by binding with special receptors which are extraordinarily abundant all over the brain and body. Your brain makes its own cannabinoid - anandamide - which is thought to be involved in pain sensations, memory regulation and the immune system. (3)

The ratio of these two substances determine the character and strength of the effect.

Like fine wines, different strains of cannabis can have their own flavour and complexity, plus their own distinct high.

Eating Cannabis
If you take it orally, you could be in for quite a ride. The liver metabolises THC into 11-OH-*9-THC, a compound three times more psychoactive. Oral cannabis is a powerful, almost psychedelic experience, very uncomfortable if you're not expecting it. The effects are slower to come on (1 to 2 hours) and last considerably longer (around 4 hours)
After Effects
Cannabis can leave you feeling a little groggy and forgetful but little else. Depending on how much you've smoked and its character and strength, these effects can linger for hours or days.

Source:1. Harder S, Rietbrock S (1997) Concentration-effect relationship of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiol and prediction of psychotropic effects after smoking marijuana. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 35(4):155-9
2. UK Independent Drug Monitoring Unit, “Cardiovascular Effects Of Cannabis”
3. MARIJUANA and MEDICINE: Assessing The Science Base, pg 43

Dangers/CAUTIONS
The toxicity of cannabis is very low. No one as ever died as a direct and immediate consequence of recreational or medical use of cannabis. But it is wrong to say it is an entirely harmless substance.
Smoking
Smoking any drug is unhealthy. Cannabis is no exception. The smoke actually contains higher concentrations of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) than tobacco smoke. Cannabis smokers generally inhale more smoke for longer depositing more than 4 times as much tar on their lungs as cigarette smokers. To balance this, however, they smoke less joints and smoke less often.
Worse is if you combine cannabis and tobacco. If you are a heavy smoker of cannabis and tobacco joints (more than 10 a day) you are signicantly increasing your risk of contracting lung disease. Recent studies show that the greatest pre-cancerous abnormalities appear in those who smoke the two drugs together. (1)
Another important factor is that most cannabis smokers stop when they reach their 30s. Long term surveys of cigarette smokers showed that those who stop before the age of 35 had only a very slightly increased risk of lung cancer. The same may apply to cannabis. (2)

Paranoia
A common side-effect, usually for first time or early users, is anxiety, panic, paranoia and feelings of impending doom. However these effects disappear within hours. Reassurance and a supportive environment help.
There are also anecdotal reports of long-term users 'turning a corner' in their cannabis use, where they can no longer enjoy the experience as cannabis triggers paranoia and anxiety attacks.
In a recent study, between 10%-15% of people who smoked cannabis reported "paranoid" or "confused" feelings as a disadvantage of smoking cannabis. (2) And over 27% reported "anxiety" as a regular or occasional effect. Around 30% gave "negative experiences" as their reason for permanently quitting cannabis. (3)

Schizophrenia
There is a lot of misinformation presented about cannabis and schizophrenia. There is general agreement that heavy cannabis use can precipitate schizophrenic episodes in those with the disorder but there is no evidence that it can cause the underlying psychotic disorder. Heavy cannabis users can exhibit long-lasting toxic psychosis involving delusions and hallucinations that can be incorrectly and dangerously - diagnosed as a schizophrenic illness. (4)
If you have mental health problems, taking a drug - any drug - excessively is going to make your problems worse.

Source: 1. MARIJUANA and MEDICINE: Assessing The Science Base, pg 111
2. paraphrased from the observations of Les Iversen,
Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford.
3. Cohen DA, Kaal, Hendrien L, "Irrelevance Of Drug Policy: Patterns and careers of experienced cannabis use in populations of Amsterdam, San Francisco, and Bremen" pg 75
4. ibid, pg 84
5. House Of Lords Select Committee on Science & Technology "Cannabis - The Scientific & Medical Evidence", 4th Nov 1998, pg 12, 4.1-4

Addiction & tolerance:Recent studies into cannabis addiction, tolerance, withdrawal effects
Cannabis is nowhere near as addictive as nicotine or alcohol but it is wrong to say it is not habit-forming.
Many users compare their daily cannabis habit with dependency on caffeine. The UK Department of Health summed it up neatly: "Cannabis is a weakly addictive drug but does induce dependence in a significant minority of regular users."
Around 9% of users become addicted (1), although some studies estimate that over 50% of users have "impaired control" over their use of cannabis. Of the 70 million Americas estimated to have tried the drug, around two million use it daily. (2)
Tolerance
Tolerance builds up rapidly after a few doses and disappears rapidly after a couple of days of abstinence. Heavy users need as much as eight times higher doses to achieve the same psychoactive effects as regular users using smaller amounts. They still get stoned but not as powerfully.
One effect of cannabis you can't develop tolerance to is "the stimulatory effect on the appetite" or munchies.
Withdrawal
If you are a regular cannabis smoker (every day) and you stop smoking, you will experience some of the following withdrawal symptoms: restlessness, irritability, mild agitation, insomnia, nausea, sleep disturbance, sweats, and intense dreams. These symptoms however are mild and short-lived, lasting 2 to 4 days. (3)

Source: 1. MARIJUANA and MEDICINE: Assessing The Science Base, pg 95
2. Lynn Zimmer, co-author 'Marijuana Myths, Marijuana Facts', New Scientist online interview, 1998 3. MARIJUANA and MEDICINE: Assessing The Science Base, pg 90-91
   THC crystals visible on a indica bud

Mixing with other drugs:
Actually cannabis is a good mixer. There are no major health risks which is probably why many recreational drug users smoke it.
Please note: there have been very few scientific studies into the effects of combining psychoactive drugs. The information presented here is anecdotal. It is based on the subjective reports of experienced users. Different people will respond differently to different drugs and drug combination. Know your body.
Alcohol makes both drugs stronger; manageable at low doses, but can cause vomiting, dizziness, and increased paranoia with large amounts of both
Amphetamines can take the edge off the harsh speed buzz
Cocaine unusual combination (uppers and downers) but can help modulate the grinding intensity of coke
Ecstasy extends and expands the E experience; used to help bring on the high, it mellows the intense rushes and helps with the come-down; makes the ecstasy more psychedelic.
Heroin complimentary effects
Ketamine no reported problems, but make sure you stub it out before taking K; K amplifies certain cannabis effects (especially closed eye visuals and mind tunnels)
LSD dulls the experience in the come-up; heightens the peak; brings back the effect during comedown
Mushrooms as above; can increase weirdness of the experience
Tobacco is a natural mixer. In fact most Europeans use just a small amount of weed in their joints ( about 20% cannabis and 80% tobacco.)  To some it flatens out the high. Hash joints are usually made with Tobacco so Americans are not as familiar with hash. Americans usually smoke weed pure to avoid the tobacco destroying the taste of the cannabis and often smoke their Hash in small specially designed pipes.

Drugtests Detection Times:
Cannabis and its active ingredient THC is tested for in most drug tests. After one-off or occasional use its break-down products or metabolites can be detected between 3-5 days after use. (1)
However, THC can be detected in a chronic user up to 12 weeks after use (2) although the average is 25(3) -27 days (4).
Cannabis is highly detectable a long time after use because THC lingers in the fatty tissues of the body and leaks steadily into the blood and then the urine over weeks.
False positives have been known to be triggered by consuming hemp-seed bars and other products, although the more detailed, more expensive gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS) test can tell the difference(5).
Passive Smoking False Positives
In rare circumstances, passive smoking can cause false positives in urine tests, up to 4 days after exposure, although those who passively smoke have noticeably less concentrations in their urine.(6)
There is some controversy over whether the cut-off levels used to detect cannabis in blood and urine tests is too low, leading to a high degree of false positives. If you feel your drug test is false due to passive smoking, then you could demand that the threshold of your test is 65ng/ml, not the 15ng/ml of many laboratories. The higher level is thought to distinguish between active and passive smoking.

Source: 1. Ellis GM Jr Mann MA Judson BA Schramm NT Tashchian A. Excretion patterns of cannabinoid metabolites after last use in a group of chronic users. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1985;38(5):572-578. from ACMED
2. House Of Lords Select Committee on Science & Technology "Cannabis - The Scientific & Medical Evidence", 4th Nov 1998, pg 9, 3.5
3. Johansson E, Halldin MM (1989) Urinary excretion half-life of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol-7-oic acid in heavy marijuana users after smoking. J Anal Toxicol 13(4):218-23.
4. Ellis GM et al
5. Fortner N, Fogerson R, Lindman D, Iversen T, Armbruster D (1997) Marijuana-positive urine test results from consumption of hemp seeds in food products. J Anal Toxicol 21(6):476-81
6. Morland J, Bugge A, Skuterund B, Steen A, Wethe GH & Kjeldsen T (1985) Cannabinoids in blood and urine after passive inhalation of marijuana smoke.  Journal of Forensic Sciences , 30(4) pp997-1002

Legality: The UK and US;
Cannabis is illegal to possess and cultivate in most countries. However, recent research into its medical benefits have revealed it is a relatively benign and mostly harmless substance. Many countries, including the UK, Portugal and Canada, are re-evaluating the plant's legal status.
The UK
On the 29th January 2004, cannabis was reclassified from a class B to a Class C drug. Class C is reserved for substances with an accepted medical use, such as steroids, anti-depressants, and some tranquillizers.
Note: it's still illegal to possess or cultivate the plants. However, if you're caught with cannabis, police can give you an official warning, rather than cautioning or charging you with an offence.
You can be arrested if:
* you are publicly smoking
* you've previously offended or been given a warning
* you are aged 17 or under
* you are close to schools or other 'youth premises'
The maximum penalty is now two years instead of five. Wow, can ya feel the common sense approaching?
In the US
Meanwhile, cannabis remains a Schedule I drug in the United States, along with LSD and heroin, carrying the severest federal penalties for possession and supply.
FAQ: Frequently asked Cannabis questions;» What is a blunt?
» Can cannabis make you sterile?
» Is it safe to smoke cannabis during pregnancy?
» Should I smoke cannabis and drive?
» Can cannabis make you schizophrenic?
» Is cannabis getting stronger?
» How long does cannabis remain detectable in a urine drug test?
» I only smoke a few draws of cannabis, maybe a whole joint but that 's it. Will this still be detectable on a drug test
» How come you can get different highs from different strains of cannabis? Don't they just all contain THC?
» What are the effects of using cannabis and breast-feeding? How does this affect the child?
» How bad is smoking cannabis compared to smoking tobacco?
» I used to smoke pot quite a bit however I find lately that when I get high - I just get paranoid and edgy? Is it me?
» I am off to Amsterdam today with my fiancee who doesn't smoke cannabis. My idea is to introduce him to hash cakes but he is allergic to aspirin and I am worried that he might have a reaction to cannabis.
» Is it possible to be allergic to cannabis? Recently I have had nasal problems when cannabis smoke is around me, my nose gets plugged and sometimes I get a runny nose and occasionally I sneeze to.
» How come sometimes I can smoke 5 grams of marijuana and be perfectly alright, and other times have one joint and have an anxiety attack?
» What is a blunt?
A sliced open cigar with the tobacco replaced with marijuana. If its smoked with a 40oz bottle of malt liquor, it is called a "B-40". Good luck.

» Can cannabis make you sterile?
Yes and no. This has been a persistent myth for over 40 years but it actually does have some basis in medicine. Basically the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, THC reduces lutenising hormone (LH) in the genitals.
LH triggers ovulation in women and is involved in sperm production in men. Result: a short-term (four to five hour) decrease in reproductive ability. Long term cannabis users, however, build tolerance to this effect and are immune. (1)

» Is it safe to smoke cannabis during pregnancy?
NOT SAFE AT ALL. Like tobacco smoke, cannabis smoke is highly likely to be harmful to fetal development and should be avoided by pregnant women and those who might become pregnant in the near future.
" Marijuana has no reliable impact on birth size, length of gestation, neurological development, or the occurrence of physical abnormalities. The administration of hundreds of tests to older children has revealed only minor differences between the offspring of marijuana users and nonusers, and some are positive rather than negative. (...) While it is sensible to advise women to abstain from all drugs during pregnancy, the weight of evidence suggests that marijuana does not directly harm the human fetus." (1)
You can find more on this subject here.

» Should I smoke cannabis and drive?
If cannabis was legal, the warning label would probably read: "Do not operate a vehicle or heavy machinery". Being stoned leads to a slight impairment of psychomotor and cognitive function. However, in studies, stoned drivers appeared to compensate for their impairment by taking fewer risks and driving more slowly, whereas alcohol tended to encourage risk taking and aggressive driving.(2)
Analysis of blood samples from road traffic fatalities in 1996-97 in the UK showed than 10% of victims who were driving were positive for cannabis. However, it is not clear what figures would have been obtained from a random sample of road users not involved in accidents. (3)


» Can cannabis make you schizophrenic?
There is a lot of misinformation presented about cannabis and schizophrenia. There is general agreement that heavy cannabis use can precipitate schizophrenic episodes but there is no evidence that it can cause the underlying psychotic disorder. Heavy cannabis users can exhibit long-lasting toxic psychosis involving delusions and hallucinations that can be - dangerously - diagnosed as a schizophrenic illness. (4)

» Is cannabis getting stronger?
Yes and no. Grass or marijuana is generally stronger thanks to sophisticated plant breeding and cultivation methods. However, hash - which usually only contains about 4 -5 % THC - remains weak and unchanged.


» How long does cannabis remain detectable in a urine test?
The active ingredient THC is detectable in the urine after 48-72 hours in a one-off or occasional user or up to 6 weeks in a heavy user.
» I only smoke a few draws of cannabis, maybe a whole joint but that 's it. Will this still be detectable on a drug test
Yes. Blood and Urine tests involve detecting microscopic amounts of THC (the main psychoactive compound in cannabis) and THC breakdown products so even a few draws or just a whole joint of cannabis would still be detectable.

» How come you can get different highs from different strains of cannabis? Don't they just all contain THC?
Cannabis has two powerful active ingredient - THC and CBD (cannabidiol). Both substances are cannabinoids which produce psychoactive effects by binding with special receptors which are extraordinarily abundant all over the brain and body. Your brain makes it own cannabinoid - anandamide - which is thought to be involved in pain sensations, memory regulation and the immune system.
The relatives amounts of these two ingredients plus small input from over sixty different cannabinoids in the plant determine the subtle differences in types of high you can get from different strains of the cannabis plant. (5)


» What are the effects of using cannabis and breastfeeding? How does this affect the child?
The main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, THC (tetrahydro-cannabinol), is fat-soluble and does enter breast milk and the baby - often, due to the size of the infant, in higher blood concentrations than the mother. However, there is no firm evidence that cannabis or THC can stunt, impair or damage a baby or their growth. One report (which is cited in several web pages on this subject) has stated that THC might delay infant motor development but we have been unable to track down and read the original study. Information on this subject is often tainted by the general assumption that 'illegal drugs are bad for you' when in fact alcohol and Prozac (fluoxetine) have more worrying question marks over their effects during breastfeeding. (6)
Nevertheless, it is probably best of avoid cannabis and other legal and illegal drugs while breastfeeding. If for nothing else but piece of mind. If you have smoked cannabis, the guilt of feeling that you may have harmed your baby can be a terrible thing.Here is a list of drugs and their suspected effects on breastmilk / breastfeeding
» How bad is smoking cannabis compared to smoking tobacco?
Smoking any drug is unhealthy. Cannabis is no exception. The smoke actually contains higher concentrations of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) than tobacco smoke. Cannabis smokers generally inhale more smoke for longer depositing more than 4 times as much tar on their lungs as cigarette smokers. To balance this, however, they smoke less joints and smoke less often.
However, it is generally accepted that smoking cannabis is not as bad as smoking processed tobacco cigarettes, especially as you smoke less material, less often.

» I used to smoke pot quite a bit however I find lately that when I get high - I just get paranoid and edgy? Is it me?
We have had several emails about this subject. It seems that some people do experience a 'turning point' in their cannabis use when it ceases to become enjoyable and instead provokes paranoia, fear or other 'bad trip' type symptoms.
In a recent study, between 10%-15% of people who smoked cannabis reported "paranoid" or "confused" feelings as a disadvantage of smoking cannabis. And around 30% gave "negative experiences" as their reason for permanently quitting cannabis. (7)
It's not clear why this happens but rest assured, your experience is not unique. We are continuing to look into this and hope to find out more information. 

» I am off to Amsterdam today with my fiancée who doesn't smoke cannabis. My idea is to introduce him to hash cakes but he is allergic to aspirin and I am worried that he might have a reaction to cannabis.
Your fiancée shouldn't have any allergy problems with eaten cannabis. However if he hasn't ever taken cannabis before, BE VERY CAREFUL about feeding him hash cakes. Dutch cannabis is very strong and eating cannabis triples the effect (see cannabis effects). It could be very disconcerting for him if he's never been stoned.
Go to a good coffee shop and the staff will be able to advise you on strengths and varieties. We wrote an full Amsterdam guide on http://www.seethru.co.uk. You'll find some good cafes and hang-outs there.
» Is it possible to be allergic to cannabis? Recently I have had nasal problems when cannabis smoke is around me, my nose gets plugged and sometimes I get a runny nose and occasionally I sneeze to.
Is it possible to allergic to cannabis although the active ingredient, THC, is endowed with some moderate anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic properties. There has been little study in this area. It may be that other elements in the smoke, especially if you mix with tobacco, are causing your reaction. If you can, try smoking through a vaporiser (which significantly decreases the amount of toxic smoke-based compounds) and see if that produces the same effect. If it does, then you probably are allergic to cannabis. Unlucky.» How come sometimes I can smoke 5 grams of marijuana and be perfectly alright, and other times have one joint and have an anxiety attack?
The character of many drugs effects and reactions are dependent on 'set and setting', your mind-set (how you feel at the time, what's going on in your life, your prevailing mood, the kind of day you've had) and your environment (where are you? are you relaxed there? who's with you? are you comfortable with everyone?).
Maybe examining when, where, what, and how you smoke will help?
Is there any thing consistent in your panic reactions? Time of day? Place where you're smoking?
You say sometimes 5 grams is okay. Sometimes one joint is enough to send you spiraling off. Could it be a strength issue? Is the cannabis you smoke always the same quality? The difference between a mild or low-grade strain and a fresh powerful strain can be considerable. If you're not prepared for being so stoned, so quickly, it may unsettle or even panic you.
What time of day do you smoke? Evenings are generally best as the body and the mind is more relaxed. Have you eaten before? Generally, an empty stomach will make drug effects stronger. A full stomach tends to ground you and lessen the possible unsettling out-of-body spacey side-effects of cannabis.

» A friend of mine told me cannabis doesn't kill brain cells, but makes them dormant. Thus, if you abstain for say, 30-60 days, the residual effects should go away. Is this true?
Cannabis does not kill brain cells nor does it make them go 'dormant'. Using cannabis can cause temporary impairments in short-term memory and what's called 'executive brain functions', the ability to learn new information or engage in complex manipulation of learned material. These effects disappear as the drug effects wear off.
Long term, chronic cannabis users themselves complain of problems with memory, concentration, loss of motivation, paranoia, depression, dependence and lethargy. However there is no convincing evidence that heavy long-term marijuana use permanently impairs memory or other cognitive functions.

Source: House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology. Cannabis. The scientific and medical evidence. London: The Stationery Office, 19981. MARIJUANA and MEDICINE: Assessing The Science Base, pg 123
2. House Of Lords Select Committee on Science & Technology Cannabis - The Scientific & Medicial Evidence, 4th Nov 1998, pg 12, 4.7
3. Department Of The Environment, Transport and the Regions study, 11 Nov 1998
4. House Of Lords Select Committee on Science & Technology Cannabis - The Scientific & Medicial Evidence, 4th Nov 1998, pg 13, 4.11
5. 1. MARIJUANA and MEDICINE: Assessing The Science Base, pg 35
6. Shinya, Ito 'Drug Therapy For Breast-Feeding Women', New England Journal Of Medicine & 'Behavioural Outcomes in Preschool and School-Age Children Exposed Prenatally to Marijuana'
7. Cohen DA, Kaal, Hendrien L, "Irrelevance Of Drug Policy: Patterns and careers of experienced cannabis use in populations of Amsterdam, San Francisco, and Bremen" pg 75-84

Some resources that may be useful:   http://www.erowid.org//plants/cannabis/cannabis.shtml
http://www.lindesmith.org
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/

University of Amsterdam Center For Drug Research  http://www.cedro-uva.org

Please note: there have been very few scientific studies into the effects of combining psychoactive drugs. The information presented here is anecdotal. It is based on the subjective reports of experienced users. Different people will respond differently to different drugs and drug combination. Know your body.
 
After you've signed your loved one up into a rehab program, reading teenage drug abuse articles might help you cope with and know more about your teenaged loved one's condition.

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